SCIENCE

MEDICATION NON-ADHERENCE IN DIABETIC TREATMENT


Medication non-adherence is an intricate and many-sided health care problem. According to WHO, adherence can be defined as the extent to which patientsí attitudes agree with recommendations for prescribed treatments by a health care professional (Jaarsma, Nikolova-Simons & van der Wal, 2012). During various stages of patientsí treatment, they may be non-adherent. Medication adherence has been recognized as a serious challenge both to the healthcare providers and the patients since it involves adherence to various self-care behaviors. Patients may resolve not to begin their treatment at all or decide not to fill their prescription.

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DOES NUTRITION PLAY A ROLE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS? (Such as ADHD, Dyslexia, and Autism)


The childhood developmental psychological disorders of dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autistic spectrum disorders and dyslexia are each defined in a relatively specific and different pattern of problems in learning and/or behavior. Dyslexia is associated with specific difficulties with writing and reading; ADHD is characterized by hyperactive-impulsive behaviors and/or attention problems; autistic spectrum is associated with impairment in communication and social skills; and dyspraxia is characterized by specific weaknesses in planning, organization and coordination of actions (Richardson, 2003).

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THE ETIOLOGY OF IQ


Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, ability to apply the knowledge acquired in solving problems and ability to engage in abstract reasoning. The attempt of psychologists in measuring intelligence brought about the concept of IQ. Intelligence Quotient forms an average value of one's intellectual capacity and population reference; it does not calculate one's intelligence. Formerly, Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was a quotient or a ratio: IQ = MA/CA x 100 [CA is the chronological age, MA is the mental age]. It is the score one gets from several standardized tests created to measure intelligence. Nowadays, scores are calibrated against norms of actual population scores (Boeree, 2003).

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THE TOP BENEFITS OF DARK CHOCOLATE


There is no doubt that dark chocolate is good for your health. Past and new studies have confirmed most of the benefits we grew up associating with chocolate. Overall, chocolate improves the body and mind. With new evidences from recent studies, we finally have a clear understanding of the mechanisms by which chocolate improvesour health. Perhaps the most evident effect of chocolate is on mood. Chocoholics know this and their "addiction" is mostly due to craving "chocolate high."

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STOP TEEN COSMETIC SURGERY


Cosmetic surgery is defined as surgery to improve a "normal" appearance, such as reshaping a nose or augmenting breasts (Zuckerman). Over the years, there have been a lot of hot debates for and against teen cosmetic surgery especially in the press, social and academic gatherings. While its proponents are vehemently promoting it, others see no reasons why it should continue. Historically, teenagers have been allowed to undergo cosmetic surgery such as Nose job (rhinoplasty) and Ear surgery (otoplasty), but now they are seeking for the many other types of cosmetic surgery. The number of teenagers seeking for cosmetic surgery is on the increase especially in the developed countries. The question is "Should teenagers be allowed to undergo cosmetic surgery despite all the risks involved?"

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND AGING


The understanding of human developmental stages and aging has helped a lot in proffering solutions to most of the health and social challenges of life. Life stages starts at infancy and ends at old age and it is generally accepted that the mystery of aging is enshrined in the process of human development. Life begins with a one-celled zygote that is made possible through fertilization of the ovum by spermatozoon. It progresses sequentially to prenatal development, birth, infancy and childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, and old age. Some scientists believe that the clock of aging could be brought backward or even stopped if the process of human developmental stages leading to ageing could be slow down or re-adjusted.

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END-OF-LIFE CARE


The medical practices for end-of life care are different all over the world, while the principle of treating dying patients with compassion and respect is widely accepted among all healthcare professionals. Over the decade, the practice of medicine has metamorphosed from a paternalistic model to the one that is centered on promoting self-determination and autonomy. The choices, preferences, and expectation of patients and their family are helping in shaping the end-of-life practices, thereby determining the choice of the use of technologies that may prolong life rather than facilitate recovery. With the widespread availability of life-sustaining therapies, different countries and cultures have different approaches in dealing with the ethical dilemmas associated with the end-of-life practices. Many people have adopted the western emphasis on the autonomy of patients to decide on the termination of life support. However, everyday patients die in the intensive care units (ICU) regardless of the availability of todayís aggressive therapy made accessible by technological advances.

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The Effect of Addiction on the Endocrine System including the Effect on Sex Hormones and the Effect on the Autonomic Nervous System


For the subject of addiction recovery and addiction treatment to be efficiently dealt with, the effects of addictive drug substances on endocrine and central nervous system must be properly understood. Addiction has the tendency to cause changes to the endocrine system and autonomous nervous system. These changes may be anatomical, physiological, molecular, biochemical, genetic and cellular. Drugs of addiction are powerful and dangerous if not used as prescribed because of their ability to alter endocrine system and autonomous nervous system or the bodily functions. In other words, the use of drug can interfere with the body chemistry of the drug users which could lead to bodily functional and behavioral changes. There are diverse definitions for drugs based on their uses. A drug can be called a pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally occurring substance used primarily to bring about a change in the existing process or state (physiological, psychological or biochemical).

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The Assorted Views on Stem Cell Research


Stem cells may have immense contribution to medical but stem cell research is rocked with various arguments characterized by both social and ethical questions. The human embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potentials to self-renew into virtually all the cell kinds in the body of adult human. This annotated bibliography is to review some of the diverse views on stem cell research by summarizing some of the evidence based research that have been published by well-established institutions, researchers, relevant newspapers, and professionals who are authorities on the subject.

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What Can Be The Various Treatments For Curing Autism?


Autism is a pervasive and life-long disorder that is characterised by profound deficits in communication and social understanding, together with ritualistic and obsession behaviours and a general resistance to change (Wing, 1993). The aetiology of autism is still not fully understood but genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. Autism may include children behaving below normal intelligence, children with epileptics in their teen years and teenagers with average intelligence or above average but with a lot of anxiety and depression. Children and adults can display any combination of autistic behaviours in varying degrees of severity. In other words, two children, both with the same diagnosis, can act differently from one another, showing varying degree of skills.

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Agricultural Revolution


In the process of time, the nomads recognized that the techniques of gathering and hunting would not be profitable enough anymore, so they were compelled to adopt another technique of survival. According to Putterman, the shifting from dependence on gathering and hunting by the Paleolithic people to dependence on agriculture was one of the outstanding changes in the history of mankind. Therefore, Agricultural Revolution can be defined as the extensive transition of different human cultures from a routine life of gathering and hunting to that of settlement and agriculture, to enable support for a growing large population (Jean-Pierre). As the population of human beings was increasing, there was an increasing reduction in game resources and hunters and gatherers had no option than to come up with another technique of sustaining themselves.

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Causes And Effects OF Neuropathy


The collection of disorders that occurs as a component of many rare and several common diseases when the nerves of the peripheral nervous system are damaged is known as neuropathy (Martyn & Hughes). This condition is generally referred to as peripheral neuropathy and it is characterized by numbness and pains in the feet and hands. Any damage to the nerve axons would lead to peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy varied in severity, heterogeneous in aetiology and diverse in pathology, the term peripheral neuropathy entails multiple and single mononeuropathy, symmetric polyneuropathy and radiculopathy.

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Cognitive Development Of Children


Childhood development is not only centered on physical growth but also on cognitive development. Without mincing words, childís physical development has a direct relationship with his cognitive or intellectual development. Specific cognitive abilities in children develop largely due to the interaction between environmental experiences and inherent capacities which is closely related to other changes which may be social or emotional. Cognitive abilities which are associated with reasoning, thinking, memory and problem-solving, continue to improve throughout childhood development. In other words, cognitive development in children can be defined as the orderly and gradual development of skills, dispositions and knowledge, which enable children to understand and think reasonably about the world around them. It is worth noting that parents have vital roles to play in the stages of childhood development associated with cognition because childrenís early relationship with their parents, in particular their mothers, has far-reaching effects on the foundation for later cognitive development (Cogill et al., 1986).

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Disease, Health And Poverty


It is no exaggeration saying disease, health and poverty are interrelated when it comes to the various causes of diseases and the approaches being adopted by various nations in tackling the menace of poverty and diseases. It is generally accepted that health is wealth. Living healthily is more economical than living unhealthily because a healthy individual does not need to worry about paying the exorbitant health bill for the treatment of diseases. It is believed that the diseases such as Tuberculosis, AIDS, Malaria and other tropical diseases are claiming thousand of lives every day. Many bread winners of various families especially in the developing countries have been killed by life-debilitating diseases which could have been prevented or treated successfully if there had been availability of drugs and vaccines in these developing and poor countries. Apart from the availability of drugs and vaccines many poor people hardly eat nutritious and balance diets which make them to be more susceptible to infections and diseases.

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Drugs And Their Addictions


Drugs are powerful and dangerous if not used as prescribed because of their ability to alter the central nervous system or the bodily functions. In other words, the use of drug can interfere with the body chemistry of the drug users which could lead to bodily function and behavioral changes. There are diverse definitions for drugs based on their uses. A drug can be called a pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally occurring substance used primarily to bring about a change in the existing process or state (physiological, psychological or biochemical) (Addictionindia.org.) When drugs are used to treat diseased conditions, they improve health conditions to bring about physical or mental well-being. But if drugs are used other than for the medical purposes in such a way that affects mental or physical functioning, it is termed drug abuse.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy


Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a gradual, severely incapacitating neuromuscular disease that distresses 1 in 3500 newborn boys and causes muscle weakness and premature death (Cirak et al., 2011). Duchenne muscular dystrophy disorder is initiated by a mutation in the open reading frame of the X-linked dystrophin gene (DMD), which assembles with sarcolemmal proteins such as a-sarcoglycan, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and dystroglycan to provide the dystrophin-related glycoprotein complex of the cell membrane. Females hardly ever show signs of the disease. However, both male and female may carry the mutation.

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Health Care, a Basic Human Right


Health is wealth, is a generally acceptable saying. This saying pinpoints the undisputed importance of health care in the life of any human being. No wonder in 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Right including the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of all persons and their families, and the right to medical care, necessary social services, and security in times of unemployment, sickness, disability, old age, or any other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond a personís control (Kennedy). Health care should be an undisputable basic human right to which any person should have the right to access when conditions necessitated it.

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Seeds Of Dementia


In recent times, scientists have unveiled some important neurological events that could lead to Alzheimerís disease. Alzheimerís disease can be defined as a progressive and an age-linked neurodegenerative disease which is characterized by loss of neuronal cells in the brain and dementia (Farbood et al). Two new studies have implicated a protein that is responsible for the spreading of dementia across the brain (Arnold). The formation of these problematic proteins through the act of clumping together results in cognitive difficulty of the brain. For a long time, researchers are of the opinion that the abnormal folding of a protein called amyloid-beta protein that travels from cell to cell might cause more of these proteins to assume deformed shape. However, it has been found that the clumped proteins which are implicated in major neurodegenerative diseases and in Alzheimerís disease have similar behaviours and patterns like that of prion, a toxic protein that is associated with destruction of brain in mad cow disease (Walker & Jucker).

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